Diagnostic classification of temporomandibular disorders
The role of physical therapists in the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) has grown over the past years. The classification of such disorders is crucial for the establishment of the most appropriate treatment. Therefore, this paper aims to provide health care providers with a framework for the examination and the evaluation of the most commonly encountered o TMDs.
Three groups have been described; group 1 masticatory muscle disorders; group 2, joint disorders related to temporomandibular disc derangements (disc displacement with or without reduction); and group 3, joint disorders related to temporomandibular joint arthralgia, arthritis, and arthrosis. In addition to the musculoskeletal structures (TMJ and the masticatory muscles), orofacial pain may result from or be exacerbated by primary or secondary headaches, cranial or peripheral neuralgias and central nervous system disorders.
An assessment of cervicogenic contributions is also critical in determining an appropriate physical therapy plan of care. The determination of the need for referral and the development of an appropriate plan of care are predicated on understanding screening strategies and valid examination and diagnostic classification procedures.
> From: Harrison et al., J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 44 (2014) 182-197. All rights reserved to Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. Click here for the Pubmed summary.