Longitudinal relationships between anxiety, depression, and pain: Results from a two-year cohort study of lower extremity trauma patients.
Previous studies suggest a longitudinal relationship between pain, anxiety and depression following trauma. In this study, a total of 545 patients with sever lower extremity trauma were followed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post- surgery. A visual analogue scale and depression and anxiety scales were used to investigate a possible longitudinal relationship between pain and negative emotions.
During the two year time period, depression did not predict pain. Pain intensity remains relatively stable over the time period. Anxiety however predicted pain over (almost) all time periods. In the first year following injury, it seems that pain predicts depression and anxiety. In the second year however, it seems that anxiety is a stronger predictor to pain over this period.
These results provide further evidence that that negative moods such as depression and anxiety play an important role in the persistence of pain. Pain can be thought of as both an outcome and risk factor in relation to psychological factors and injury. Further research is needed to capture the relationship between these and other negative emotions and other aspects of pain. > From: Castillo et al., Pain (2013) (Epub ahead of print). All rights reserved to Elsevier B.V.
The Pubmed summary of the article can be found here.